Before mankind got out of the earth, people were thinking: how did the earth come from? After human beings walked out of the earth and saw the vast universe, scientists put forward a planetary theory through a large number of observations and studies, and basically figured out the origin of the earth.
There are countless celestial bodies and galaxies in the vast universe, and these celestial bodies and galaxies can basically find their origins through research. The origins of celestial bodies and galaxies have been established, but people have raised a more magnificent question: What is the origin of the universe?
Since celestial bodies and galaxies have origins, the universe must also have origins. Scientists put forward the Big Bang theory after research and believe that our universe is a singularity that originated 13.8 billion years ago. In the 1960s, Hawking and Penrose proposed the singularity theorem, which was proved by some observational data of the universe.
After the Big Bang of the Singularity, the universe was born, and then it continued to expand and evolve into the present colorful universe. Nowadays, the Big Bang theory has become the mainstream view of the origin of the universe. With the accumulation of observational data, more and more evidences have emerged, which proves the correctness of the Big Bang theory of singularities.
The origin of the universe Now scientists have basically found the answer, so people think of another more magnificent question: what was the universe like before it was born? If the universe originated from the Big Bang at the beginning, then there should be things that existed before the universe was born. What would it be like?
Regarding the appearance of the universe before it was born, it may seem to many people that it is meaningless to study and explore this, because there was no time and space before the Big Bang, and time and space were not created until after the Big Bang. Since time was born after the Big Bang, what is the point of studying before the Big Bang?
The above explanation seems very reasonable, but no one is satisfied with this impeccable answer on the law of causality. As long as everything exists, it will have cause and effect, and it will also have a front and a back. The same is true for the universe. Its existence will have an origin and an end, and it will also have a pre-birth existence.
But studying the state of the universe before it was born is countless times more difficult than studying and exploring the origin of the universe, because it is difficult to start, and I don’t know where to study and explore. In the 2020 Nobel Prize in Science, Roger Penrose won the Nobel Prize in Physics. The 89-year-old twilight old man is extraordinary. He proposed the singularity theorem with Hawking in the 1960s and used some data to prove that the universe originated from a singularity.
After Roger Penrose proposed the theory that the universe originated from a singularity, he also thought about what the universe was like before it was born? Penrose also disagrees with the meaningless view of studying the universe before it was born. In his opinion, the universe must exist before it was born, so what would it look like?
After constant thinking and research, Roger Penrose proposed conformal circular cosmology. So what is the conformal circular universe? In fact, we use a simple word to express, that is, the universe has reincarnation.
The mathematical basis of the Penrose Conformal Cyclic Universe (CCC) model is conformal mapping, also called conformal transformation. The term “conformal” reflects the geometric meaning of transformation, that is, keeping the angle between two smooth curves and the shape of the infinitesimal structure unchanged, but not keeping their size. At the time of the Big Bang, the originally densely reduced space was stretched by transformation; for the future, transformation can limit the infinitely expanding space to a limited range.
The above explanations are rather circumscribed and difficult to understand. In plain language, I believe that friends all know that the universe was born from the Big Bang and then began to expand continuously. The expansion of the universe makes the distance between galaxies larger and larger, and the galaxies keep moving away, becoming “universal islands” that are far away from each other. On the other hand, gravity makes stars and galaxies continue to collapse, forming more and more stellar black holes and super black holes.
Scientists finally confirmed in 2008 that the center of the Milky Way itself is a super large black hole with a mass about 4 million times the sun. Black holes and black holes may merge to produce larger black holes, but they will never split into smaller black holes.
In the universe, the merger and fusion of galaxies is very common. The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy will also collide and merge after 4 billion years. The two black holes in the center will also collide and merge, and finally become a larger massive black hole. . And such merging of galaxies will continue in the future and continue to evolve. Then a super huge black hole will appear at the center of the universe.
Let’s talk about the expansion of the universe. Will it continue forever? I’m afraid it’s impossible. We all know that if a balloon wants to inflate, we need to blow into it to provide energy for it. If the universe is unique, then its energy cannot be obtained from the outside world, but can only consume the energy in the universe. This energy may be the dark energy we have been looking for now.
Dark energy accelerates the expansion of the universe, and the continuous expansion of the universe continues to consume energy. As the energy continues to decrease, the expansion of the universe cannot continue and will stop at a certain time in the future. Is stopping the expansion the end of the universe? Of course not. With less and less energy, the space of the universe will not be able to sustain, so it will collapse, that is, the universe will continue to shrink after it stops expanding, and finally the entire universe will shrink to a singularity again, and a new big bang will happen again, a new one. The universe began to expand and evolve.
Penrose believes that our universe circulates infinitely in this kind of big bang-expansion-big bang-expansion, and before the birth of the universe, it was another universe, not nothing. And this theory can also be explained by the law of entropy increase. We all know that the law of entropy increase is the second law of thermodynamics, a law that makes scientists feel desperate.
The law of increase in entropy tells us that the entropy value of everything increases from the moment it is born, and this process is irreversible. As the entropy value continues to increase, the system will become more and more chaotic and eventually reach the end. The same is true for the universe. From the moment the singularity big bang was born, the entropy value began to increase continuously.
As the entropy continues to increase, the universe will become more and more unstable, and then the universe will shrink, celestial bodies will be destroyed, and black holes will continue to grow and swallow everything into energy. Finally, the black holes will evaporate and disappear, and the entire universe will become A space of pure energy. After the energy space continues to shrink and shrink to the extreme, it will have a big bang again, and a new cosmic cycle begins.
Penrose’s Conformal Circular Cosmology will be seen again as it wins the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2020. And Penrose also recommends this theory to people again. It can explain what the universe looked like before, and predictably, the six Hawking points found on the cosmic microwave background are the best proof of this theory.
In spite of this, the theory of conformal circular cosmology is still not supported by a large number of scientists. To prove the correctness of this view, Hawking’s point is the key. However, scientists have been carefully examining the cosmic microwave background for many years and have not found any special hot spots. The so-called Hawking point does not exist.
From this point of view, Penrose’s conformal circular cosmology has a long way to go before it is recognized by people. In any case, this theory reveals to us what the universe might have looked like before, and it is of great significance. If in the future scientists discover Hawking’s point and prove the theory of conformal circular cosmology, then he will become a scientist as great as Einstein.