As for temperature, I believe that my friends will not be unfamiliar. We are dealing with it every day and every moment. Temperature exists in every corner of the world. Even our human body has a healthy temperature range. Once out of this range, whether it is high or low, it will cause varying degrees of damage to our body.
Temperature created everything on the earth and evolved primitive life, and temperature continued to evolve along with life, and human beings were born. From the moment human beings were born, we began to perceive and recognize temperature. However, due to the lack of scientific knowledge, the ancients did not know much about temperature, nor did they think that temperature was so mysterious and complicated.
However, with the continuous development of human civilization, we have embarked on the road of science and technology. With the assistance of science and technology, mankind has a new understanding of temperature. Through continuous cognition, we have discovered that temperature is not as simple as we imagined. Everything in this world, including the birth, evolution and final end of the universe, must be controlled by temperature.
The increase and decrease of temperature will have some influence on the form and internal of the substance, thereby changing the form of the substance. We have three main forms of temperature changes: gaseous, liquid and solid. For their mutual transformation, temperature is an important factor. So what is the highest and lowest temperature?
To understand the highest and lowest temperature, we must first have a preliminary understanding of the nature of temperature. I believe that many friends know that the essence of temperature is actually a kind of molecular thermal motion. Matter is composed of various particles, and the continuous thermal motion of the particles gives the material temperature.
When the movement of particles continues to intensify and the kinetic energy becomes larger and larger, the temperature of the object they constitute will also become higher and higher. So is there a limit to the velocity of particles? The answer is yes. According to the theory of relativity, the limit of particle motion is the speed of light, and it can only be infinitely close to the speed of light. Therefore, theoretically speaking, the temperature generated by the thermal motion of particles also has a limit.
According to current physics research, the highest temperature limit is the Planck temperature, which is about 1.42×10^32 degrees. This temperature was only reached at the moment of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago. It is also such a high temperature that the universe can produce the initial hydrogen, helium and other basic elements from a singularity in an instant.
We all know that in classical physics, mass and energy are two completely different concepts, and there is no definite equivalent relationship between them. In the theory of relativity, mass and energy are only two manifestations of matter. They are essentially the same. They can be transformed into each other, and the factor of transformation is temperature.
When the temperature reaches a certain level, matter will exist in the form of energy. Once the temperature drops below this critical value, the matter will exist in the form of mass. This is why hydrogen can be formed quickly after the singularity explosion. The reason for the basic elements such as helium is that the Planck temperature was generated at the moment of the big bang, and then this temperature dropped quickly, and the matter could not maintain the energy form, so it was converted into hydrogen, helium and other elements.
As the temperature of the universe continues to drop, more complex matter appears, with the appearance of structures such as stars, planets, and galaxies. Therefore, from the current physics perspective, the upper limit of temperature is the Planck temperature, and whether there is a higher temperature above this, our current physics is still unable to describe.
The kinetic energy of the particles continues to increase, leading to a continuous increase in temperature. Then the kinetic energy of the particles continues to decrease, and the temperature of the object will continue to decrease. So when is the kinetic energy of the particle smallest? Regarding this point, I believe many friends can think of it, that is, when the particle is no longer moving and stays still, the kinetic energy reaches the minimum value at zero.
When the kinetic energy is zero, the temperature will also decrease to the lowest, and the corresponding temperature is called absolute zero, which is -273.15 ℃, or 0K. This is the result obtained by scientists based on experimental conclusions and concepts. It is accurate We don’t have to doubt about sex.
We now know that absolute zero is the lower limit of temperature. What happens when the temperature reaches this level? First of all, we must understand that the temperature cannot reach absolute zero. We must know that the universe has been cooling while expanding continuously during the long 13.8 billion years. After such long years of continuous cooling, the average temperature of the universe today is about- 270.42 ℃, this value is still 2.73 degrees higher than absolute zero.
Scientists tried to reduce the temperature continuously in the laboratory, and achieved some good achievements. For example, the nitrogen was changed into liquid nitrogen by compression. The temperature at this time was only -196 ℃. Liquid hydrogen is a commonly used fuel for rockets. The temperature is as low as -253 ℃. The lowest temperature created by humans is -273.1499999999 ℃, which is the result of scientists cooling a piece of metal rhodium. This is a value that is infinitely close to absolute zero, which shows how powerful the power of technology is.
Now we understand that absolute zero is impossible to achieve, but many friends still want to understand: what will the world become under absolute zero? Many friends may know that the lower the temperature, the lower the world will be. When it reaches a certain level, the earth will become a frozen world.
Behind the temperature is the thermal motion of the particles, and in quantum mechanics, the particles are also in constant motion. If absolute zero appears, it means that the particles have stopped moving, and the particles have no kinetic energy, then everything in this world will become meaningless, including time and space.
Relativity and quantum mechanics are the two cornerstones of modern science. The premise for their existence is the movement of particles. If the particles stop moving, then the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics will also collapse, time and space will disappear, and there will be no meaning, then the entire universe will also usher in its end.