13.8 billion years ago, with the Big Bang of the Singularity, the universe was born. After the birth of the universe, through continuous expansion and evolution, stars, planets and countless large and small galaxies have gradually formed. The galaxy is the basic unit that makes up the universe. The Hubble Space Telescope has exposed hundreds of times in a certain direction in the depths of the universe, and then obtained a deep space photo.
Through this photo, we can see that there are countless bright spots in the distant starry sky. These bright spots are actually large galaxies like the Milky Way. These large galaxies are composed of hundreds of billions of different star systems, and star systems can be regarded as the most galaxy units in the universe, and it can be said that they are the most important structure in the universe.
So how did the star system form? The so-called star system is composed of one or more stars with varying numbers of planets. The center of the star system is a huge star, and within its gravitational influence range, there are unequal numbers of planets orbiting it. For example, in the solar system, the center is the star sun, and there are eight planets orbiting it.
So how is a star system born? According to current scientific research, scientists believe that the star system originated in early nebulae. Let’s take the solar system as an example. About 5 billion years ago, the current position of the solar system was a cluster of solar nebulae. The matter keeps gathering toward the center, and then a celestial body is born in the center.
After this celestial body was born, relying on its own gravity, accelerated the absorption and accumulation of surrounding matter, so its mass became larger and larger. When the mass grows to a certain level, it will ignite the internal nuclear fusion and evolve from ordinary celestial bodies into stars. So the sun was born. After the sun was born, the solar nebula had lost 99.86% of its material, which made the sun, and the remaining material, under the action of the sun’s gravity, continued to condense to form various planets and other small particles. Celestial body.
Through the origin of the solar system, we can draw the conclusion that it is impossible to give birth to planets or other celestial bodies at a location very close to the sun. The reason is simple. The matter near the sun has been emptied long ago, and they have condensed on the sun during the formation of the sun. Only some matter exists far away from the star and the sun, and these matter can form planets and various asteroids.
Based on the position of Mercury in the solar system, this conclusion is correct. Scientists have obtained the theory of planet formation and the theory of star formation by studying the solar system. So does this concept apply to the entire universe? Will there be special planets, such as a planet that appears very close to a certain star?
Scientists have discovered many exoplanets through the Kepler telescope, such as Kepler 452b, which is very similar to the Earth, and many other types of planets. The distribution of these planets in the orbit basically conforms to the planetary origin theory and stellar origin theory proposed by scientists. They are all at a relatively far distance from the main star.
But the discovery of a planet made scientists feel incredible, calling it a planet that shouldn’t exist. What’s the matter? It turned out that scientists observed a hell planet 400 light-years from the earth, and scientists named it Kepler 78b. It is called a hell planet because the temperature on its surface is very high, as high as the surface temperature of some small stars.
You know, the closest planet in the solar system to the sun is Mercury. Although its surface temperature has reached hundreds of degrees, it is far from being compared with the surface temperature of stars. Even the smallest type of star yellow dwarfs, their surface temperature is also 3000 degrees up and down. The Kepler 78b discovered by scientists has reached a surface temperature of 3000K, which is more than 2700 degrees Celsius.
The reason why a planet can have such a terrible temperature is because it is too close to the host star. According to observations, the distance between it and the parent star is only one 40th of the distance between Mercury and the sun. Such a close distance causes its revolution. The cycle is also very short, only about 8.5 hours. This is the shortest known planetary orbit.
Scientists have attracted a lot of attention to the appearance of this planet. According to the existing theory of planet formation, it should not appear so close to the parent star. Because in the early stages of this position, there should be no excess matter, and it is impossible for nature to form planets, even if it is to form an asteroid.
But existence is reasonable. Now that this impossible planet has appeared, does that mean that the existing planetary theory of mankind is not completely correct? You may wonder if this planet was formed from a place far away from the star, and then pulled closer by the gravitational force of the star by chance? Some scientists also thought of this possibility.
However, through a series of analysis, research and simulation, this possibility was finally denied. If it had formed a planet in the distance and then was drawn to this distance, it would be impossible for it to continue orbiting the parent star like this, but it should be revolving. Farther away, it falls directly into the star’s interior.
We must know that in a star system, the mass of a star accounts for more than 90% of the mass of the entire galaxy. Its gravitational force is very strong. How can a distant planet escape from its orbit and run toward the star? The star will revolve without reaching a position very close to the star to form a stable orbit.
It can move very close to the star, indicating that it has a high probability of being formed near the star, so that it can have a stable orbit during the process of formation. It also shows that the star orbiting around this planet is very young and has not been born for a long time. Although Kepler 78b has become a very rare special planet in the universe, its future fate is very bad.
Being so close to the parent star, the surface temperature has reached more than 2700 degrees Celsius. Such a high temperature will continuously evaporate planetary material, and it will disappear completely in the near future. Although it was fortunate to become a planet, it was only a flash in the pan. The discovery of Kepler 78b also made us question the existing theory of the origin of planets. It is possible that our current understanding of the formation of star systems is not comprehensive enough. This important discovery helps us continue to complement it.