We all know that the world in which humans live is a planet called the Earth. On the outside of the earth is the vast and vast universe. The moment human beings walked out of the earth to see the vast universe, we became infinitely interested in the mystery of the universe.
We use science to study and explore the mysteries of the world. In the process of exploration, we discovered that the universe is made of matter. Without matter, there would be no stars, no planets, no life on earth, and no human beings would be born. So a question arises, that is, where does the matter in the universe come from? Could it be made out of nothing?
The Hubble Space Telescope has been exposed to different locations in the sky and seemingly empty areas for more than ten days or even dozens of days in 1995, 1998 and 2003 respectively. Finally, three images of HDF, HDFS and HUDF were obtained. photo.
Through these three photos, we have seen a wonderful and bright universe. It may seem to many people that the universe is dark and lonely, with scarce matter and scarce galaxies, but in fact, the universe is not lonely at all, and the number of star coefficients is too large to be counted. Standing within a very limited range, the universe we see is indeed very dark.
But when we look farther, you will find that the universe is actually very bright, with various galaxies and stars everywhere. Even in the starry sky as far away as 13.35 billion light-years away, there are still countless galaxies shining. There are so many galaxies that cannot be counted. They are all made up of various materials. To form such a large number of galaxies, a huge amount of material is inevitably needed. So where do these materials come from?
To uncover the origin of matter, we need to explore the origin of the universe. Through a large amount of observational data, scientists have put forward the theory of the Big Bang, that our universe is a singularity that originated 13.8 billion years ago. It was this singularity that caused a big bang under the action of a certain force and gave birth to the early universe.
After the birth of the universe, the universe did not stop expanding, but rapidly expanded outward at a speed exceeding the speed of light. After 13.8 billion years of expansion, the vast universe we see today was formed. And how big the universe is now is still unclear. The observable range of human beings is only 93 billion light-years. This is because the speed of photons is only the speed of light. No matter how distant galaxies, the speed of photons is lower than the speed of expansion, and they will never come. To the earth.
Therefore, beyond the scope of the observable universe, there are even more vast and unknown universes. After we know the origin of the universe, we also understand that before the universe was born, everything did not exist, there was no time, space, space, and all kinds of matter.
The matter in the universe was born after the Big Bang, so how was it born? Is it born out of nothing? From a scientific point of view, we do not believe that there is something out of nothing in the world. Everything happens because it has a cause and it has an effect, and so is the emergence of matter. It must be transformed from other things. Then what is transformed into matter?
These mysteries caused scientists to encounter a dilemma, and it was not until the appearance of Einstein that the answer was given. Einstein had two great theories, one is the theory of relativity, and the other is the mass-energy equivalence equation. Before the mass-energy equation appeared, although scientists knew the origin of the universe, they were unable to clarify the origin of matter.
You must know that the magical thing that matter is born from a singularity makes many people feel incredible. It is impossible to say clearly in one sentence. Until the emergence of the mass-energy equivalence equation, let us understand that there is actually no difference between mass and energy. Mass is energy, and energy is also mass. They are only two sides of things, and they are just ways of expressing in different states.
With the guidance of the mass-energy equivalence equation, scientists have also raised their knowledge of matter and energy to a new level. Let us have a research and exploration direction on the source of matter. Although we know that energy and matter are equivalent, matter can be transformed into energy, and energy can also be transformed into matter. But in the real world, we only see a large number of The phenomenon of the conversion of matter into energy, but I have never seen the conversion of energy into matter.
Although in reality we have not seen the conversion of energy into matter, scientists have no doubt about the correctness of the mass-energy equation. The reason why we cannot see the transformation of energy into matter is because this transformation requires very harsh conditions, which cannot be achieved in the real world.
Scientists have discovered that the most important thing for energy to be transformed into matter is that its temperature must reach a very terrifying state. In June 2011, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the United States accelerated two beams of gold nuclei to a collision near the speed of light, and detected “quark gluons” on the collider’s STAR detector. “Plasma”, that is, the phase transition temperature between matter and energy! This temperature is about 2 trillion degrees Celsius.
This temperature is the critical occupancy of the previous transformation of energy and matter. The upper part is the energy world, and the lower part is the material world. Therefore, the energy is only the performance in different states. Such a terrifying temperature cannot be seen in the real world and the universe. It can only be realized at the moment when the singularity big bang occurs.
When the singularity is inflated and transformed into the universe, the dense energy brings the energy world, and the universe’s matter at this time exists in the form of energy. As the temperature drops and reaches the critical point of 2 trillion, matter begins to transform from energy state to mass. Quark gluons combine to form protons and neutrons, and continue to cool. Protons and protons and neutrons fusion form hydrogen and helium. With nuclei such as lithium.
After having these basic material elements, after a period of development, atoms are formed. Then came the appearance of stars. The first batch of stars were basically supermassive stars, and their lifespans were only tens of millions of years. When the supernova exploded, the material elements continued to evolve, forming more heavy elements.
With heavy elements, planets also have a material basis for their birth. In the entire evolution of the universe, stars play an important role, because they are the smelting factories of the universe. Basic elements such as hydrogen and helium need to evolve continuously through nuclear fusion to form elements such as oxygen and iron. Finally, when the star’s life is reached, a supernova explosion occurs, once again evolving heavier and more elements.
Through the above understanding, we understand that the matter of the universe does not arise out of nothing, and Einstein’s mass-energy equation tells us the answer. This answer makes scientists very happy. Energy and matter can be transformed into each other. Although the temperature requirements for energy conversion into matter are too high, the universe only has the conditions when it is born, but we have the power of science.
Science is powerless, and the 2 trillion critical temperature that cannot be reached in the universe, through the power of science, may we have the ability to achieve in the future. At that time, human beings can convert energy into matter at will. This technology is incredibly powerful. With such technology, we will no longer have to worry about resources, because all resources can be transformed with the ubiquitous energy of the universe.